The Role of Animal Agriculture in Climate Change: An Overview

Animal agriculture, the practice of raising animals for the purpose of producing food, fibre, and other products, includes the production of meat, dairy products, eggs, leather, and wool, among other things. Animal agriculture can take many forms, including factory farming, free-range farming, and small-scale family farming.


The impact of animal agriculture on climate change has become an increasingly important topic in recent years. With the world's population projected to reach 9.8 billion by 2050, the demand for animal-based products is expected to increase substantially. This, in turn, will have significant environmental and social impacts, including increased greenhouse gas emissions, land use, water use, and pollution.

Animal agriculture is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for approximately 14.5% of global emissions, according to the FAO. Livestock are responsible for approximately 7.1 gigatons of CO2 equivalent every year, with cattle accounting for the largest share of emissions.

The following are the main ways in which animal agriculture directly contributes to greenhouse gas emissions:

  1. Enteric fermentation: Enteric fermentation is the digestive process in ruminant animals, such as cows and sheep, which produces methane as a byproduct. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, with a warming potential 28 times greater than CO2.
  2. Manure management: Manure management involves the storage, treatment, and disposal of animal waste. When manure is stored or treated in lagoons, methane is released into the atmosphere.
  3. Feed production: The production of feed for livestock, such as corn and soy, requires significant amounts of fossil fuels, fertilizers, and pesticides, which contribute to greenhouse gas emissions.

Land Use & Deforestation: Animal agriculture is a major driver of land use change, with vast areas of land converted for the production of feed, pasture, and other animal products. The amount of land used for animal agriculture varies depending on the type of farming, but it is generally much more extensive than the land required for plant-based food production.

Deforestation, the clearing of trees and other vegetation, is a major consequence of animal agriculture, particularly in tropical regions. Deforestation is often driven by the expansion of pasture land for cattle and the production of feed crops, such as soy and palm oil. Deforestation not only contributes to greenhouse gas emissions but also results in the loss of biodiversity and the destruction of vital ecosystems.

Livestock production uses 77% of the world's farmland but provides only 18% of the world's calories. The expansion of pasture and feed crop production is responsible for a huge amount of global deforestation. The Amazon rainforest, one of the world's most biodiverse regions, has experienced significant deforestation in recent decades, driven in large part by the expansion of cattle pasture and soy production. 

Water Use and Pollution: In addition, animal agriculture is a major consumer of water, with vast quantities required for the production of feed crops and for the maintenance of livestock. The amount of water used in animal agriculture varies depending on the type of farming, but it is generally much more extensive than the water required for plant-based food production.

Animal agriculture is a significant source of water pollution, with animal waste and fertilizers from feed crop production leading to the contamination of waterways. Runoff from animal agriculture can contribute to the growth of harmful algal blooms, deplete oxygen levels in water bodies, and harm aquatic ecosystems. In addition, the use of antibiotics and other chemicals in animal agriculture can also lead to the contamination of water resources. Animal agriculture is responsible for around 20-33% of global freshwater consumption. 

Effects on Biodiversity: Further, animal agriculture is a major driver of biodiversity loss, with the conversion of natural habitats for animal feed production and the expansion of grazing land leading to the destruction of critical ecosystems. The loss of natural habitats can cause the extinction of plant and animal species, disrupt ecosystem processes, and reduce the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

Animal agriculture can also have a significant impact on endangered species, particularly those that depend on intact habitats for their survival. For example, the expansion of cattle ranching and soybean production has contributed to the decline of jaguars in South America, while the destruction of natural habitats for palm oil production has threatened the survival of orangutans in Southeast Asia. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists several species as threatened due to the impacts of animal agriculture, including the Sumatran orangutan and the Amazon River dolphin.

Alternatives to Animal Agriculture:

Some alternatives to animal agriculture have been proposed:

Plant-based Diets

Plant-based diets have gained popularity in recent years as a more sustainable alternative to animal-based diets. Plant-based diets can provide all the necessary nutrients required for human health and have a lower environmental footprint than animal-based diets. Plant-based protein sources such as legumes, tofu, and nuts are also more water-efficient than animal-based protein sources. By shifting towards plant-based diets, individuals can reduce their carbon footprint and contribute to a more sustainable food system.

Sustainable Animal Agriculture Practices

Sustainable animal agriculture practices can also help to mitigate the environmental impacts of animal agriculture. These practices can include reducing greenhouse gas emissions through improved feed efficiency and manure management, reducing land use by transitioning to pasture-based livestock systems and reducing water use through improved water management practices. Additionally, supporting regenerative agriculture practices that prioritize soil health can help to improve the overall sustainability of animal agriculture. UNEP has highlighted the potential of regenerative agriculture practices to improve soil health, increase biodiversity, and sequester carbon in agricultural soils. The latest research suggests that a combination of dietary shifts and sustainable farming practices will be necessary to create a more sustainable and resilient food system.

The impact of animal agriculture on the environment and human health is a complex and pressing issue that requires urgent action. Individuals can make a difference by adopting plant-based diets and supporting sustainable farming practices. However, systemic changes are also needed, such as reducing government subsidies for animal agriculture and increasing support for sustainable agriculture. The latest data and statistics suggest that the shift towards a more sustainable and resilient food system is possible, but it will require a collective effort from individuals, policymakers, and the agricultural industry.

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