German firm MAN Energy Solutions (MAN ES) has developed one of the world's largest heat pump units capable of heating an Olympic-sized swimming pool from 20°C to boiling point in less than four hours. Heat pumps work by compressing warmed refrigerants to raise their temperature, allowing the heat to be utilized for residential or industrial purposes. While domestic heat pumps are common, MAN ES's commercial-grade heat pump has a total heating capacity of 48 megawatts (MW), making it capable of heating thousands of homes simultaneously.
With the rising urgency to transition away from fossil fuels, there is a growing demand for larger and more powerful heat pump systems that can provide heating solutions for entire towns. District heating, in particular, is experiencing significant growth. In Esbjerg, Denmark, MAN ES recently installed two 48 MW heat pumps that use CO2 refrigerant to absorb heat from seawater and transfer it to a district heating system serving 27,000 households.
Determining the largest heat pump systems in the world is challenging because they often consist of multiple smaller heat pumps combined. Stockholm's district heating system is often considered the largest, with a maximum capacity of 215 MW, but it comprises seven interconnected heat pumps. Similarly, Gothenburg's system has a capacity of 160 MW, spread across four units, two of which are larger than those in Stockholm.
Efficiency is also a crucial factor in heat pump design. Dave Pearson, group sustainable development director at Star Refrigeration, highlights the importance of ammonia as a refrigerant in maximizing efficiency. The Austrian Institute of Technology has studied heat pump applications in various industries, such as pharmaceuticals, food, and paper factories. Heat pumps offer an alternative to costly natural gas in these sectors, particularly since its price has risen due to geopolitical tensions. District heating systems powered by heat pumps are gaining traction globally. For instance, Vienna plans to launch a 55 MW system that utilizes heat pumps to raise temperatures from 6°C to 90°C using treated wastewater, providing heat to 56,000 households. Wien Energie, the energy provider, aims to double the system's capacity to 110 MW by 2027.
While large heat pumps are impressive in size and capacity, reaching up to 28 MW, their potential is limited to district heating systems. The decarbonization benefits of district heating are significant as they allow for the simultaneous reduction of emissions in multiple households.
In conclusion, the demand for high-capacity heat pumps is surging as countries seek to decarbonize their heating systems. Companies like MAN ES are developing powerful heat pump units capable of serving entire towns, while district heating systems powered by heat pumps are becoming increasingly popular. Although challenges remain, including determining the largest heat pump systems and ensuring efficiency, heat pumps are proving to be a promising solution for transitioning away from fossil fuels in the heating sector.